It seems, in order to be lionized in the social sciences, one must be fixated on raping children, subverting one's culture to dissolution, or misrepresenting obscurantist pseudoscience as fact. The staggering effort to rehabilitate one of the most grotesque figures of the last century as a compassionate messianic visionary of LGBTIA12345ABC+ liberation must register as a record somewhere, even for these charlatans.
Hirschfeld had the dubious honour of being the recipient of the Nazis' first book burning. The trouble here is, learning what this man and his colleagues were up to would provoke any rational person - at least superficially - to sympathise with it. History is complex.
You can draw a straight line from him to Alfred Kinsey, then to John Money.
"Scientists like Alfred Kinsey employed the technique of questionnaires, developed by Hirschfeld between 1899 and 1925, during his research into the sexual behaviour of women and men in the US."
Who Was Hirschfield? Don't Mention Eugenics
It's hard to know everything, because the Nazis wanted him disappeared from the planet. His library was burned, along with his surgical notes. He was a transvestite homosexual doctor responsible for the first "sex change" procedures, whom the Nazis drove out of Germany in 1930, but is now celebrated as the "Einstein of Sex".
Freud described him as "no great loss, a flabby, unappetizing fellow, absolutely incapable of learning anything", and LaVey describes a "messianic fervor, [with an] inclination to romanticize, and [his] almost mechanical approach to psychology".
Perhaps the best commentary and biography can be found in the revoltingly-titled "Magnus Hirschfield and the Quest for Sexual Freedom" by Elena Mancini.
Born in 1868, Hirschfeld was a gay doctor who attended Protestant school, eventually earning his medical degree in 1892. After he graduated, he got involved with the Chicago gay scene during travels through the US. After he came back, he started a medical practice in Magdeburg, then Charlottenburg, a district of Berlinm where he penned his seminal work "Sappho and Socrates".
In 1897, he co-founded the Wissenschaftlich-humanitäres Komitee ("Scientific-Humanitarian Committee") which aimed to repeal Paragraph 175 of the German Penal code criminalising sodomy.
In 1903, he published "Der Urnische Mensch" ("The Homosexual").
In 1905, Hirschfeld joined the Bund für Mutterschutz ("League for the Protection of Mothers"), a feminist organization founded by Helene Stöcker. He campaigned for the decriminalisation of abortion (Paragraph 218).
He outraged the entire country with testimony in support of General Kuno von Moltke's libel trial stating "homosexuality was part of the plan of nature and creation just like normal love", leading to him being physically attacked multiple times.
In 1910 he invented the term "transvestite" ("Geschlechtsverirrungen")
In 1913, he co-founded the Medical Society for Sexual Science and Eugenics.
In 1914, he published his study "Homosexuality in Men and Women".
In 1919 he helped produce the first film to call for the decriminalization and acceptance of homosexuality, Different from the Others (1919).
The same year, he opened the Institut für Sexualwissenschaft ("Institute of Sexual Research") which housed a library of 20,000 depravities viewable as the Museum of Sex. He lived there with his lover Karl Giese. With a panel of medical doctors, the "institute" performed the first barbaric "sex change" procedures.
In 1921, he organised the World League for Sexual Reform, which advocated for eugenics, sex education, and removal of religion.
In 1923, he invented the term "transexual" in "Die Intersexuelle Konstitution"
In 1930, he fled to New York claiming to be a "sex expert" for "heterosexual marriage". He was thrown out a year later when the press dug up his German past. For two years he wandered British Asia.
In 1933, university students from the National Socialist Student League (Deutsche Studentenschaft) sacked the Institut für Sexualwissenschaft. The Sturmabteilung (SA) followed and publicly burned everything inside.
He moved to Paris and lived in a homosexual "throuple" with Karl Giese and Canadian medical student Li Shiu Tong ("Tao-li").
In 1934 he had moved to Nice and wrote his book "Rassismus (Racism), which provided the modern-day framework of science being the cause of racism. He tried to start the Institut Français des Sciences Sexologiques.
He died, in Nice, in 1935. And presumably is not enjoying the temperature down there. Giese killed himself in 1938.
The Origins of "Gay Rights" in 19th Century Germany
So-called "gay rights" did not start with Stonewall, if they had been catalysed by the events of that evening in New York. The idea of "homosexuality" itself traces back to the 1860s. Or so is claimed. One has to be careful with LGBT "scholars" or anyone in the humanities department because of their disreputable practices of revisionism in the hope of attempting to give their political ideologies' imaginary historical roots.
An amazing history can be found in the Washington Post's serialisation of "Queer Science: The Use and Abuse of Research into Homosexuality" by Simon LeVay: https://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/style/longterm/books/chap1/queerscience.htm
Robert Beachy’s “Gay Berlin: Birthplace of a Modern Identity” places the advent of homosexual history (aka the "German Custom") firmly on the continent, making it the "capital".
Beachy makes a highly convincing case that homosexuality, both as an identity and as a sociological ‘species’, was invented by Germans. According to Beachy, four broad vectors contributed to this invention.
First, Paragraph 175 [of the German Penal Code], the legal provision that criminalized male homosexuality, created the need for political organization among Germany's same-sex desiring men.
Second, German forensic and psychiatric professionals worked with ‘ordinary’ homosexual men, rather than developing abstract theories based on a small sample of institutionalized homosexuals, as was the case in France.
Third, Germany's literate (and heterosexual) middle class became increasingly engaged in the fight against Paragraph 175 [of the German Penal Code].
Fourth, Imperial Germany's remarkably free press allowed for the propagation of homosexually oriented publications, a freedom that was further expanded under the Weimar Republic.
Although the terms "heterosexual" and "homosexual" were coined in 1869 by Hungarian journalist Karl Kertbeny to replace "sodomite" - himself a homosexual pederast who groomed teenage boys - it was his friend Karl Heinrich Ulrichs who really got the anal beads rolling.
Incidentally, Kertbeny also suggested "monosexual" for masturbators, and named practitioners of anal intercourse "pygists".
1868, May 6: Karl Maria Kertbeny: "Homosexual," "Heterosexual" In a letter, in German, to Karl Heinrich Ulrichs on May 6, 1868, an early sex-law reformer, the writer Karl Maria Kertbeny, is first known to have privately used four new terms he had coined: "Monosexual; Homosexual; Heterosexual; und Heterogenit" -- the debut of the homosexual and heterosexual categories, and two now forgotten terms.
Jonathan Ned Katz, The Invention of Heterosexuality (NY: Dutton, March 1995), p. 52-53.
Karl Heinrich Ulrichs was a gay German lawyer who went in front of the Sixth Congress of German Jurists in Munich in 1867 to argue for the repeal of laws against sodomy. It was a brave thing to do. Before his friend Kertbeny made up his words, Ulrich had created his own within "Forschungen über das Rätsel der mannmännlichen Liebe": Urning (gay) and Dioning (lesbian).
It is within these documents the idea of a "third sex" arose; a man's body with a woman's sensibilities.
Our sexual drive is one that demands periodical satisfaction, be it complete, be it incomplete. The latter consists of petting and absorbing that magnetic current that flows from the body of a young man, which is transmitted to us through physical contact with him.
What we see here is the first "gay rights" apologist, and the same weasel games of redefining words.
The essential point in Karl Heinrich Ulrichs’ theory of homosexuality (1864) was the conviction that the male homosexual possesses a female soul enclosed in a male body (‘anima muliebris in corpore virili inclusa’). Ulrichs believed that both possibilities of sexual development remained possible in the embryo’s early stages when the sexual organs were not yet differentiated. He saw confirmation of this idea in the existence of hermaphrodites. He postulated that there must be a ‘germ’ [‘Keim’] that determined whether the sexual organs would develop male or female. To explain the discrepancy between the sexual organs and the sexual orientation, he postulated the existence of another ‘germ’ that determined the direction of the sex drive.
Thirty years later in 1896, the first gay anarchist magazine - Der Eigene - was published by gay activist Adolf Brand. The first lesbian magazine - Die Freundin - appeared in 1924, published by Friedrich Radszuweit.
In the same year, German immigrant Henry Gerber created the Society for Human Rights in Chicago as the US "gay rights" organisation. In the 1980, the Human Rights Campaign (HRC) lobby group was founded.
Ulrichs' writings were found and reprinted by one Magnus Hirschfield. And he had an idea. Homosexuals were a kind of "third sex".
Weimar Berlin: A "Buggers' Paradise" of Child Prostitutes
Germany was humiliated and impoverished after its second attempt at European aggression. Moreover, it's enemy - Britain - had ascended to the largest empire the world had ever seen, as the power of its ally America began to emerge. When academics describe the Weimar Republic, it's painted with rosy glasses as the "Golden Twenties" paradise of artistic achievement, social experimentation, and a wild abandon of hedonistic freedom.
It might have been to some eyes. However, the culture was so depraved, the Nazis cited it as justification for "cleansing" the country. Their language was of disgust, not hate. The degeneracy is hard to believe.
As (homosexual) poet W.H Auden put it in a letter quoted in Carpenter’s biography (pp. 90), mirroring his lover Christopher Isherwood's sentiments:
Berlin is the buggers daydream.
Isherwood describes it similarly in "Down There on a Visit":
Christopher-in the whole of The Thousand and One Nights, in the most shameless rituals of the Tantras, in the carvings on the Black Pagoda, in the Japanese brothel pictures, in the vilest perversions of the Oriental mind, you couldn't find anything more nauseating than what goes on there, quite openly, every day. That city is doomed, more surely than Sodom ever was.
The city of 4M people had 900+ nightclubs and an estimated 100,000 prostitutes. 500 men a month were arrested for sodomy, and at least 30% of men had been blackmailed for it. Much description of it can be found in Curt Moreck’s "Guide Through Depraved Berlin" and Ruth Margarete Rolling's "Berlins lesbische Frauen".
Pimps spoke in code as prostitution was illegal until 1927:
In downtown Berlin, some pharmacists peddled a side trade in child prostitutes. These boys and girls were prescribed as ‘medicine’. If you knew where to go, you simply told the chemist you wanted some ‘medicine’. You would also tell him how long you had been ill for. This was all part of a not-so-elaborate ruse; if you said you had been ill for 13 years, then the pimp knew you wanted a 13-year-old girl. Similarly, if you requested red pills, he would try and procure a redhead for you.
Pimps would place advertisements in newspapers and magazines. If you knew what you were looking for, the code was simple enough to crack. Then all you needed to do was phone the number given and a ‘telephone girl’, that is a child between the ages of 12-to-17 would be delivered right to your home or hotel room.
But perhaps the most lurid historiography is found in "Voluptuous Panic: The Erotic World of Weimar Berlin" by Mel Gordon. The horror is stunning.
The sheer variety of odd sexual tastes Gordon documents in "Voluptuous Panic" is astonishing. For instance, Gordon identifies 16 different types of prostitutes, including "telephone girls," enormously expensive child prostitutes ages 12-17 labeled "Marlene Dietrichs" or "Lillian Harveys" according to their physical attributes. These girls could be ordered by phone and delivered by taxi to the client. There were also so-called minettes, who acted out S/M fantasies, and "demi-castors" (French slang for "half-beavers"), young women from good families who made extra cash by hooking part time.
In tribute to the German mania for taxonomy, Weimar Berlin boasted an equally diverse assortment of lesbian and gay labels. "Sugar-lickers" were nighttime gay pederasts, and "Breslauers" were men with large penises. Lesbians might be ultrafemme "madis," or tuxedoed, highfalutin "dodos," and so on.
This is echoed elsewhere:
“Grasshoppers” performed oral sex in the Tiergarten, while “gravelstones” were the physically-deformed sex workers of north Berlin. “Telephone girls” were children who could be selected by their attributes to modern film stars and ordered by phone. “Nice girls” were “demi-castors” (Franco-slang for “half-beaver”) who merely hooked part-time to feed their families.
His full list speaks for itself:
BOOT GIRLS: Dominatrices whose sexual services were signaled by the color of their boots, laces, and ribbons, sometimes worn in combination.
BLACK BOOTS: Buttocks cropping (lying on bed).
BROWN BOOTS: Asphyxiation by boot or stockinged foot.
COBALT-BLUE BOOTS: Penetration by female.
SCARLET BOOTS: Cross-dressing humiliation.
BLACK LACES: Punishment with a short whip.
GOLD LACES: Defecation on chest.
WHITE LACES: Collared like a dog.
WHITE RIBBONS ON TOP OF BOOTS: Male customer begins as the dominant figure and ends as the submissive party.
DOMINAS: Leather-clad women who specialized in whipping, humiliation, and other forms of punishment, and worked in lesbian night-clubs that admitted heterosexual couples and male clients.
FOHSES: Independent prostitutes who advertised in newspapers and magazines as manicurists or masseuses.
GRASSHOPPERS: Streetwalkers who performed oral sex in the Tiergarten.
GRAVELSTONES: Physically deformed women who worked in north Berlin.
MEDICINE GIRLS: Child prostitutes who were “prescribed” by pimps posing as physicians in phony pharmacies in west Berlin.
MUNZIS: Pregnant women who waited under lampposts on Münzstrasse.
RACEHORSES: Masochistic prostitutes who worked in Institutes for Foreign Language Instruction, where the schoolrooms were equipped with bondage equipment.
TAUENTZIEN GIRLS:Women wearing the latest fashions and hairstyles, often working in mother-daughter teams near the Kaiser Memorial Church.
TELEPHONE GIRLS: Child prostitutes, aged twelve to seventeen, who were made to resemble junior versions of theater or film starlets and were ordered by telephone.”
Describing Bohemian art, which frequently featured images of murdered women:
Finally, there was the Scorpion—a hopelessly evil femme fatale who took sick delight in the corruption of unworldly, ego-shattered girls. The menacing Scorpion was a made-up vampire who not only enjoyed the taste of virgin blood but the creation of man-hating progeny—“When she walked into the room, all the young women knew they were in abject moral danger!” The Scorpion was more than a defiling agent, a succubus who castrated men without their knowledge or physical presence, she was the living symbol of a new social order without erotic boundaries or familial conventions.
The extent of it is summed up by Luigi Barzini in "The Europeans":
I saw pimps offering anything to anybody, little boys, little girls, robust young men, libidinous women, animals. The story went around that a male goose of which one cut the neck at the ecstatic moment would give you the most delicious, economical, and timesaving frisson of all, as it allowed you to enjoy sodomy, bestiality, homosexuality, necrophilia, and sadism at one stroke. Gastronomy too, as one could eat the goose afterwards.
Finally, in his horrific treatise "The Sodomitic Reputation of Weimar Berlin", Professor Gregory Woods - apparently a postmodern sociology type - quotes Morgan's summary of some of the worst of it through visiting British eyes:
What repelled British officers in Berlin and elsewhere with an almost physical nausea was the open and blatant evidence, which confronted us wherever we went, of the unnatural. That "dark" offence [... ] "which is not so much as to be mentioned among Christians", flourished like a horrible fungus in the moral decay around us. It seemed to be accepted as a matter of course. "Soliciting" by men was practised with the most shameless impudence in the streets, the Tiergarten, the foyers of fashionable hotels, as though they were licensed by the police. Even in polite society one German would say of another, and his tastes, "Er ist homosexual" [sic], as one might speak of a man being fond of cricket or golf. (MORGAN, 1945, p. 195).
Screenwriter Ben Hecht simply described it as a "prime breeding ground of evil".
The backdrop to any discussion has to start with describing the abject misery of fashionable aristocratic perversion and destitute widows resorting to prostitution.
This wasn't a Disneyland of Cabaret or a gay jungle like West Hollywood. This was hell.
Depraved Pseudoscience: Baron Ferdinand von Reitzenstein & Eugene Steinach
The scientific climate during the 1910s was febrile; supplanted by Mesmer and the American "New Thought", whacky trends were all the rage. None more so than... monkey glands.
In 1917, a wealthy American, Evelyn Bostwick, funded the work of a Franco-Russian named Serge Voronoff. Her boss, and then her husband. By the time of its publication in 1925, 700 surgeons had applauded his work documented in "Rejuvenation by Grafting".
He invented a technique for grafting monkey testicle/gland tissue into men's balls, in order to improve their virility.
His first official transplantation of a monkey gland into a human took place on June 12, 1920.Thin slices (a few millimetres wide) of testicles from chimpanzees and baboons were implanted inside the patient's scrotum, the thinness of the tissue samples allowing the foreign tissue to fuse with the human tissue eventually.
Voronoff's later work included transplants of monkey ovaries into women. He also tried the reverse experiment, transplanting a human ovary into a female monkey, and then tried to inseminate the monkey with human sperm.
In 1923, Eugene Steinach was an endocrinologist, and the Director of Vienna's Biological Institute of the Academy of Sciences. He adapted his 1912 "work" of swapping guinea pig's genitals into a "cure" for homosexuality: yes, by transplanting testicles into gay men, where he believed the condition was to be found.
Eugen Steinach developed a combination of vasectomy and vasoligature that became known as the Steinach operation. This procedure, along with testicular implantation popularized by Serge Voronoff, was an attempt to rejuvenate older and fatigued men around the world. The early experiments and results of Steinach, Voronoff and their followers were plagued by secrecy,
More: "Dr Steinach coming to make old young!’ sex glands, vasectomy and the quest for rejuvenation in the roaring twenties": https://cdn.elsevier.com/promis_misc/Endreview.pdf
Hirschfield was a fan-boy of his work and sent a lot of tonne of his "clients" over. At least four of these "procedures" were performed by Richard Mühsam, a German surgeon who Hirschfield sent requests to. They were stopped in 1924 because it made testicles rot.
Steinach's experiment seemed to provide dramatic support for a biological explanation of homosexuality. "The decisive factor in contrary sexual feeling," Hirschfeld wrote in 1920, "is not, as Ulrichs believed, in the mind or soul (anima inclusa), but in the glands (glandula inclusa)." Whatever reservations Hirschfeld may have felt about the desirability of changing a person's sexual orientation were laid aside in favor of promoting Steinach's research. He sought and found volunteers for the procedure--gay men who were desperate to become heterosexual--and directed them to Steinach. Some further successes were reported, but eventually the procedure was exposed as ineffective. If only one of the volunteer's own testicles was removed, there was no permanent effect on his sex drive or sexual orientation. In cases where both of the volunteer's own testicles were removed, however, the consequences were more serious. Hirschfeld published one man's account of his experience.
After my wife gave her consent, I underwent a bilateral castration. The operation was performed by a well-known surgeon, with the understanding that it would be followed later by the implantation of a testicle from a heterosexual man. As I was already over forty, the initial operation didn't have any dramatic effects. My voice and facial hair weren't affected. My sex drive declined in strength but didn't change its direction. I did lose my body hair, though. A year later the testicle of a heterosexual man was implanted in my abdominal cavity. My body hair began to regrow, but six months later it disappeared again. My sex drive gradually declined until it finally disappeared,but it never changed its direction. My desire to drink and use drugs did go away--I've been clean and sober for years now. So I achieved what I wanted. But I've been destroyed as a man: my drive and will-power are gone. I don't blame anyone--I asked for the procedure myself. But maybe I could have given up drinking if only my feelings of inferiority had been alleviated, by social or moral means. Steinach's transplants were much overrated in those days, even by doctors. I've researched the literature--there isn't one reported case of lasting improvement after a transplant.
This madness didn't stop with Hirschfield. His staff were recruitef for it.
Inside the Institute of Sex Research, the clinic's academic theory was developed by Baron Ferdinand von Reitzenstein, who died in a psychiatric unit in 1929. He had some "interesting" thoughts on Africans.
Von Reitzenstein himself advocated a so-called ‘benevolent colonialism’ in which Europeans should ‘teach’ Africans their more ‘developed’ gender order (von Reitzenstein, 1913) – but also constituted the rejection of any
equality measures in a European context.
Von Reitzenstein stated that:
a branch of our women’s movement which wants to carry out gainful employment in male clothing has to be evaluated in terms of sexual pathology. Not the shell produces true values but its inner core. But for women this core is as unattainable as for men having children ...Therefore, these dogmatic, manly-like persons should be seen as degenerations into past times. (von Reitzenstein, 1923: 371)
It is noteworthy here that these lines were not written by a fierce reactionary. Reitzenstein was an outspoken advocate on the rights to abortion and same-sex partnerships.
"Fears and fantasies: German sexual science and its research on African sexualities, 1890–1930"
So what was this "clinic"?
Pioneering "Surgery" on Mentally Ill People
The violations of the Hippocratic Oath which went on at the "Institute for Sex Research" would chill anyone to the bone. Hirschfield believed homosexuality was an innate medical disorder and was best represented by Karl Ulrichs' ideas. Britannica summarises him like so:
Hirschfeld maintained that sexual orientation was innate and not a deliberate choice, and he believed that scientific understanding of sexuality would promote tolerance of sexual minorities. His sexology research was guided by empiricism and activism, driven by the belief that the sexual ideology of Judeo-Christian civilization was a serious obstacle to the understanding of sexuality and to the reform of laws and practices that regulated it. Initially Hirschfeld supported the concept that homosexuals constituted the “third sex,” although he soon moved on from that. He is best known for his subsequent theory of sexual intermediaries, which held that there were many types of naturally occurring sexual variations found across the human population, such as hermaphroditism, homosexuality, and transvestism.
His most fundamental belief was there is a biological basis to homosexuality.
Hirschfield's non-profit donation institute was in Tiergarten, Berlin, in an elegant neoclassical mansion that had once belonged to the great violinist Joseph Joachim. It's name has been translated as Institute of Sex Research, Institute of Sexology, Institute for Sexology or Institute for the Science of Sexuality. He opened it jointly with psychotherapist Arthur Kronfeld and dermatologist Friedrich Wertheim.
It is preserved now by Magnus-Hirschfeld-Gesellschaft e.V., who organise exhibitions of its layout and materials: https://magnus-hirschfeld.de/ausstellungen/institute/ . American writer Christopher Isherwood gave an account of his time at the Institute in Christopher and His Kind (1976).
The people listed as being associated with it are:
- Felix Abraham — psychiatrist
- August Bessunger — radiologist
- Karl Giese — archivist (Hirschfield's lover)
- Berndt Götz — psychiatrist
- Hans Graaz — naturopath
- Friedrich Hauptstein — administrative director
- Kurt Hiller — lawyer (probably quite busy)
- Max Hodann — sex educator
- Hans Wilhelm Carl Friedenthal — anthropologist
- Hans Kreiselmaier — gynecologist
- Arthur Kronfeld — psychiatrist, psychologist
- Ewald Lausch — medical assistant
- Ludwig Levy-Lenz — gynecologist
- Eugen Littaur — otolaryngologist (head and neck)
- Franz Prange — endocrinologist
- Ferdinand von Reitzenstein — ethnologist
- Adelheid Rennhack — housekeeper
- Arthur Röser — librarian
- Bernard Schapiro — dermatologist, andrologist
- Arthur Weil — neuroendocrinologist, neuropathologist
- Friedrich Wertheim — dermatologist
"Female journalists" from outlets like Teen Vogue have attempted to portray it as a House of Wonders: https://www.teenvogue.com/story/lgbtq-institute-in-germany-was-burned-down-by-nazis , as have "serious" publications like Scientific American: https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/the-forgotten-history-of-the-worlds-first-trans-clinic/ . The rose-tinted lying, religious-style declarations, and pseudo scientific fiction for reader approval in these essays is vomit-inducing.
According to Florence Tamagne ("History of Homosexuality in Europe, Berlin, London, Paris 1919-1939"), the private clinic "conducted around 18,000 consultations for 3,500 people in its first year", and in true socialised medicine style, gave consultations for free like Bernie Sanders would have approved of. It had a Eugenics Department for Mother and Child offering marital counseling services.
Among Hirschfield's areas of study:
He suggested that it would be worthwhile to examine the vaginal secretions of lesbians for the presence of spermatozoa, and the urine of gay men for menstrual blood. In part, such groundless speculations were the result of Hirschfeld's failure to clearly distinguish among homosexuals, transsexuals, genital intersexes, and gonadal hermaphrodites. But another factor was Hirschfeld's need for visual proof of his theories: he could not rest his case, it seemed, until "lesbian sperm" were laid out for the world to behold.
What went on among all the lectures and exhibits was Genitalumwandlung (“transformation of genitals”): castration, penectomy and vaginoplasty. The most infamous were carried out by Erwin Gohrbandt, Felix Abraham and Ludwig Levy-Lenz.
Patient Zero at Hirschfield's institute was a severely mentally ill man named Dora (Rudolph) Richter, who had tried to rip off his penis at 6 with a tourniquet. In 1922, his castration was documented in Zeitschrift für Sexualwissenschaft und Sexualpolitik. Nine years later, his penis was amputated and replaced with a false vagina by Dachau doctor, Erwin Gohrbandt (see below).
One could raise an objection to this type of surgery, that it is some kind of luxury surgery with a frivolous character, because the patient possibly will return to the doctor after some time with new and greater demands. This cannot be excluded. It was not easy for us to decide on the described procedures, but the patients were not to be dismissed, but also were in a mental state that made it probable that self-mutilation, with life-endangering complications, could be possible. From other cases we have learned that transvestites indeed cause themselves very severe harm if the doctor does not fulfill their wishes.
Abraham F (1931), Genitalumwandlungen an zwei männlichen Transvestiten. Zeitschrift für Sexualwissenschaft und Sexualpolitik, 18: 223-226
Danish painter Einar Wegener (aka "Lili Ilse Elvenes") had himself castrated in 1930 before having an ovary implanted, his penis removed, and finally his scrotum removed at Dresden Municipal Women's Clinic. Finally, he had a womb transplant and false vagina. The infection from it killed him.
German painter Arno Ebel (aka "Toni Ebel") suffered a mental breakdown on returning from WWI. His five surgeries were described in Felix Abraham's grotesque study paper (above).
It's impossible for us to know how many others underwent these ghoulish procedures, because all the the records were burned by the Nazis.
A group of forty men, purportedly "scientists", hid away in a mansion and conducted bizarre amputations and anatomy experiments on extremely unwell people.
From Castrations To Dachau: Erwin Gohrbandt's Hypothermia Experiments
Advocates, lobbyists, and Hirschfield apologists would rather people not talk about that one clinic "physician" and his post-clinic activities.
Erwin Gohrbandt, Hirschfield's deputy, was a Mengele of Dachau.
He went straight from butchering genitals, to sterilising the disabled, to experiments in concentration camps.
At the Am Urban hospital in Berlin, he began his important academic work of serialising the disabled. In 1937, he wrote a paper about it:
"The activities of surgeon Erwin Gohrbandt (1890-1965) on behalf of the Berlin University, the city's municipal council and the Berlin Surgical Society"
He joined the Luftwaffe in 1940 as a doctor and became a General after throwing hundreds of pilots in freezing water. His entry in the Nazi Doctors list is succinct:
Gohrbandt was a high-ranking top surgeon in Germany. As the Director of Surgery at the University Clinic of Berlin, he was the chief medical advisor for aeronautical medicine at the Luftwaffe's Sanitary Services Division (Annas & Grodin, 1992). He participated in the Dachau Hypothermia Experiments and then published a report on them in a leading surgical journal.
What happened in these experiments?
The immersion-hypothermia project was conducted at the Dachau concentration camp between August 1942 and May 1943. Its purpose was to establish the most effective treatment for victims of immersion hypothermia, particularly crew members of the German air force who had been shot down into the cold waters of the North Sea.14 The subjects in the experiment were male civilian prisoners belonging to various religions and nationalities, as well as Russian prisoners of war. Their participation was usually forced, but occasionally it was "voluntary" in response to promises, rarely fulfilled, of release from the camp or commutation of the death sentence.
During the experiments, the subjects were immersed in a tank of ice water. Some were anesthetized, others conscious; many were naked, but others were dressed. Several different methods of rewarming the subjects were also tested. Responses of body temperatures, clinical manifestations, and selected biochemical and physiologic measurements were purportedly monitored, and autopsies were performed.
One assistant later testified that some victims were thrown into boiling water for rewarming.
According to Leftipedia:
Hundreds of prisoners suffered and died, or were executed in medical experiments conducted at KZ Dachau, of which Sigmund Rascher was in charge. Hypothermia experiments involved exposure to vats of icy water or being strapped down naked outdoors in freezing temperatures. Attempts at reviving the subjects included scalding baths, and forcing naked women to have sex with the unconscious victim. Nearly 100 prisoners died during these experiments. The original records of the experiments were destroyed "in an attempt to conceal the atrocities".
More: "Nazi Science-The Dachau Hypothermia Experiments" Robert L. Berger (1994). Medicine, Ethics, and the Third Reich: Historical and Contemporary Issues
Gohrbandt is describe, with others, by UK organisation LGBT Health as a "pioneer of gender reassignment surgery": https://www.lgbthealth.org.uk/lgbt-health-blog/pioneers-gender-reassignment-surgery/
German Monster Vs German Monster
History is complex. It's not simple. How did a monster like Hitler - and his monstrous Nazi party - end up against the "worst of all monsters", Hirschfield? And what does it means when one destroys the other? Does it put you on one side or the other if you sympathise?
Is it possible for evil people to inadvertently do good?
Book-burning is wrong, but what if those books and documents are obscenity like child pornography?
- Describing Hirschfield as being "ahead of his time" is damning to us in the present day;
- Romanticising him as a messianic figure of compassion is a grotesque perversion of the ugly truth;
- Calling him a "scientist" would be deeply inaccurate because of his absurdly unscientific theories and experiments.
Many things we do know about Hirschfield: he was intelligent, curious, and relentless. He was perceptive and recognised sexuality was understudied. He appears to have felt a genuine sympathy with people trying to deal with sexual problems.
He was also a rabid homosexual entirely possessed by a morbid obsession with sexual depravity, whose legacy - the fruit of his tree - is pure evil. His "medicine" of eugenics was distinguishable from the Nazi camp doctors' only in whom it consumed as patients, and the supposedly "compassionate" intent of it - a rhetorical trick often used in communist apologism.
Even the Nazis used his ideas of biological immutability to justify the slaughter of people displaying unfavourable sexual traits. Alfred Kinsey and John Money carried it on and mutilated children in their research.
An extreme effort is currently going on across Big Tech and the academic world to purge all information from Gen Z's eyes on who this man was or what the Weimar Republic was, as part of a whitewashing of unfavourable LGBT history. He is now painted in only a prophetic and visionary light, as Berlin is portrayed as "heady" and "party-friendly".
Weimar Berlin normalised child rape for money. This man organised the mutilation of deeply troubled victims' genitalia for the same reason Mengele did what he did.
The proponents of this revisionism and its remodelling as historical evidence for the "gay rights" LGBT movement would do well to note what came next from the disgust they created in ordinary people.